Septohypothalamic Nucleus

TMT presentation, especially with amounts (> or =75 micromol) producing endocrine activation, induced c-fos mRNA in several brain areas, including the olfactory bulb, lateral septal nucleus, septohypothalamic nucleus, anteromedial and oval nuclei of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the central nucleus of the amygdala, the anteroventral, anterodorsal, and medial preoptic nuclei, the anterior, dorsomedial, lateral, supramammillary, dorsal premammillary and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, the external lateral parabrachial nucleus, the locus coeruleus, and the nucleus of the solitary tract.  

PnNOS was found in the media preoptic area, posterior magnocellular, and the parvocellular regions of the paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, septohypothalamic nucleus, medial septum, cortex, and in some of the nNOS staining neurons throughout the brain. PIN staining was present in neurons of the medial preoptic area, paraventricular nucleus, medial septum, and cortex, but not in the supraoptic nucleus, septohypothalamic nucleus, or organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis.  

The present work was aimed at examining the possible involvement of different parts of the septal area (dorsal, medial, lateral, and septohypothalamic nucleus), the basolateral amygdala, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in the regulation of the cytotoxic activity of NK cells (NKCC).  

At the anterior level, the highest densities were present in the diagonal band of Broca, the preoptic area (medial and lateral parts) and the septohypothalamic nucleus.  

None of the tachykinin receptor antagonists had an effect on the formalin-induced c-Fos expression in the septohypothalamic nucleus, medial thalamus, parabrachial nucleus and central amygdaloid nucleus, indicating that neurotransmitters other than neurokinins are most probably responsible for the activation of these areas in response to noxious stimulation.  

In particular, c-fos mRNA levels were significantly decreased within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, septohypothalamic nucleus, intermediate subdivision of the lateral septum, central amygdaloid nucleus, and the amygdalohippocampal area in the CD group exposed to an acute challenge when compared to males defeated only once.  

Both retrograde and anterograde labelings were mainly found in: 1) the deep cerebellar nuclei; 2) the lateral lemniscus and paralemniscal nuclei, deep gray, and white intermediate layers of the superior colliculus, tegmental (laterodorsal and microcellular) nuclei, and central gray; and 3) the septohypothalamic nucleus, and lateral and posterior hypothalamic areas.  

The pattern of Fos expression throughout the brain after injections of corticotropin-releasing hormone into the locus coeruleus was generally consistent with the anatomical organization of efferent projections arising from the locus coeruleus; increased Fos expression was observed in many brain areas including the ventral lateral septum, septohypothalamic nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the central amygdaloid nucleus, the dorsomedial nuclei of the hypothalamus, and the thalamic paraventricular and rhomboid nuclei.  

Particularly intense c-fos induction was observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, especially its anterior medial and ventral aspects, the septohypothalamic nucleus, the ventral lateral septum, the ventral portion of the dentate gyrus, a number of hypothalamic nuclei including the lateral preoptic area, the medial preoptic nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus, the median raphe and the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus.  

Thus, in addition to blockade in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, c-fos mRNA induction in the lesioned animals was abolished in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, especially its anterior medial and ventral aspects, the septohypothalamic nucleus, and the anteroventral preoptic area, compared with unoperated and sham-operated rats.  

The ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, septohypothalamic nucleus, some tegmental nuclei, and the locus coeruleus had particularly high c-fos induction in rats that received the conditioned inhibitor, providing one of the first functional indication that these nuclei might be important in behavioural or endocrine inhibition.  

The highest densities of androgen receptor immunoreactivity were found in the septohypothalamic nucleus, the medial preoptic area, the posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the posterodorsal division of the medial amygdaloid nucleus.  

In the ventral part of the lateral septum, the septohypothalamic nucleus, the nucleus subfornicalis and the stigmoid nucleus estrogen receptor immunoreactivity was less intense.  

In the rabbit brain there is less AT2 receptor binding than the rat, with most AT2 binding found in the molecular layer of the cerebellum and in the septohypothalamic nucleus.  

Some brain regions including the amygdaloid complex, septohypothalamic nucleus, preoptic hypothalamus, zona incerta, ependyma and subfornical organ were exceptional in that they displayed adult immunostaining patterns at early postnatal ages suggesting a precocious maturation of gap junctions in these areas.  

These areas were the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial posteromedial part; the medial preoptic nucleus, central part; the septohypothalamic nucleus; the ventral reuniens area; and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus.  

Low but detectable densities of endothelin binding sites were found in medial geniculate nucleus, fields of Ammon's horn, caudate-putamen, globus pallidus, entopeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra, anterior commissure, internal capsule, anterior pituitary, median preoptic nucleus, septohypothalamic nucleus, superior colliculus and area postrema.  

However, degenerating terminals were also present in areas not known to receive primary sensory innervation: the inferior olivary nucleus, sphenoid nucleus, medial and olivary pretectal nuclei, interpeduncular nucleus, interfascicular nucleus, caudal linear, dorsal, median, and paramedian raphe nuclei, supramammillary area, lateral habenula, ventrolateral geniculate nucleus, ventral reuniens nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic and preoptic areas, suprachiasmatic nucleus, septohypothalamic nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral septal nucleus, accumbens shell, olfactory bulb, and retina.  

Oxytocinergic neurons in the septohypothalamic nucleus, the anterior commissural nucleus, the periventricular nucleus and the zona incerta only occasionally showed nuclear uptake of (3H) estradiol.  

A scattering of LHRH-IR fibers were also observed in several extrahypothalamic regions, notably the subfornical organ, indusium griseum, habenular complex, septohypothalamic nucleus, and amygdala..  

The earliest degeneration was observed at day 1 in the intermediate and ventral divisions of the lateral septal nucleus, followed by development of degeneration on days 2-4 in neuron populations including the septohippocampal nucleus, septohypothalamic nucleus, anterior olfactory nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, endopiriform nucleus, parafascicular nucleus, superior colliculus, interstitial nucleus of the posterior commissure, inferior colliculus, pontine nuclei, raphe nuclei, pars caudalis of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the caudal aspect of nucleus tractus solitarius, dorsal vagal motor nucleus, granule cells in the dentate gyrus, pyramidal cells in CA fields of the hippocampus, and of neurons in the subiculum, pyriform cortex, entorhinal cortex and neocortex (mainly layer Vb and VI).  

In short term estradiol treated animals, additional immunoreactive perikarya could be observed in the septohypothalamic nucleus, the lateral subcommissural area, the medial preoptic area, the perifornical region, the zona incerta and the ansa lenticularis.  

By means of the indirect immunoperoxidase technique using two-color immunocytochemistry a moderate to strong nuclear glucocorticoid receptor (GR) immunoreactivity was demonstrated in the vast majority of the corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-immunoreactive nerve cells of the parvocellular parts of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, of the septohypothalamic nucleus, of the bed nucleus striae terminalis and of the central and medial amygdaloid nuclei.  

Sites containing cholinergic neurons of varying density were: medial and lateral preoptic areas, septohypothalamic nucleus, median preoptic area, lateral hypothalamus including the perifornical area, anterior hypothalamic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, posterior hypothalamic nucleus, dorsal and ventral premammillary nuclei, neuropil mediodorsal to the anterior hypothalamic nucleus, neuropil ventral to the anterior hypothalamic nucleus and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, neuropil between lateral hypothalamus and ventromedial hypothalamus, and neuropil between dorsal premammillary nucleus and posterior hypothalamic nucleus.  

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